The most significant advance was the development of chromolithography , a technological achievement that made bold, richly colored images available at affordable prices. American Protestants believed a virtuous life led to success, but the belief was challenged mid-century when the country embraced materialism and capitalism. In , The Checkered Game of Life rewarded players for mundane activities such as attending college, marrying, and getting rich.
Daily life rather than eternal life became the focus of board games. The game was the first to focus on secular virtues rather than religious virtues,  and sold 40, copies its first year. The game is a typical roll-and-move track board game. Players move their tokens along the track at the spin of the arrow toward the goal at the track's end. Some spaces on the track will advance the player while others will send him back.
In the affluent s, Americans witnessed the publication of Algeresque rags to riches games that permitted players to emulate the capitalist heroes of the age. One of the first such games, The Game of the District Messenger Boy , encouraged the idea that the lowliest messenger boy could ascend the corporate ladder to its topmost rung. Such games insinuated that the accumulation of wealth brought increased social status. McLoughlin Brothers published similar games based on the telegraph boy theme including Game of the Telegraph Boy, or Merit Rewarded Greg Downey notes in his essay, "Information Networks and Urban Spaces: The Case of the Telegraph Messenger Boy", that families who could afford the deluxe version of the game in its chromolithographed , wood-sided box would not "have sent their sons out for such a rough apprenticeship in the working world.
Margaret Hofer described the period of the s—s as "The Golden Age" of board gaming in America. The late s onwards have seen substantial growth in the reach and market of board games. This has been attributed to, among other factors, the Internet , which has made it easier for people to find out about games and to find opponents to play against. Some games, such as chess, depend completely on player skill, while many children's games such as Candy Land and Snakes and Ladders require no decisions by the players and are decided purely by luck.
Many games require some level of both skill and luck. A player may be hampered by bad luck in backgammon , Monopoly , Risk ; but over many games a skilled player will win more often,  and the elements of luck can make for more excitement, and more diverse and multifaceted strategies, as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered. Luck may be introduced into a game by a number of methods.
The use of dice of various sorts goes back to the earliest board games. These can decide everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly , to how their forces fare in battle, as in Risk , or which resources a player gains, as in The Settlers of Catan. Other games such as Sorry! Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters.
Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. German-style board games are notable for often having less luck element than many North American board games. Another important aspect of some games is diplomacy , that is, players making deals with one another. Negotiation generally features only in games with three or more players, cooperative games being the exception.
An important facet of The Settlers of Catan , for example, is convincing players to trade with you rather than with opponents. In Risk , two or more players may team up against others. Easy diplomacy involves convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against.
Advanced diplomacy e. In perfect information games, such as chess, each player has complete information on the state of the game, but in other games, such as Tigris and Euphrates or Stratego , some information is hidden from players.
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This makes finding the best move more difficult, and may involve estimating probabilities by the opponents. Many board games are now available as video games , which can include the computer playing as one or more opponents. Some websites allow play in real time and immediately show the opponents' moves, while others use email to notify the players after each move. There are also virtual tabletop programs that allow online players to play a variety of existing and new board games through tools needed to manipulate the game board, but do not necessarily enforce the game's rules, leaving this up to the players.
There are generalized programs such as Vassal , Tabletop Simulator and Tabletopia that can be used to play any board or card game, while programs like Roll20 and Fantasy Grounds that are more specialized for role-playing games. While the board gaming market is estimated to be smaller than that for video games , it has also experienced significant growth from the late s. A dedicated field of research into gaming exists, known as game studies or ludology.
While there has been a fair amount of scientific research on the psychology of older board games e. Simon , and Fernand Gobet have established that knowledge, more than the ability to anticipate moves, plays an essential role in chess-playing.
Linearly arranged board games have been shown to improve children's spatial numerical understanding. This is because the game is similar to a number line in that they promote a linear understanding of numbers rather than the innate logarithmic one. Research studies show that board games such as Snakes and Ladders result in children showing significant improvements in aspects of basic number skills such as counting, recognizing numbers, numerical estimation and number comprehension.
They also practice fine motor skills each time they grasp a game piece. Additionally, board games can be therapeutic. With crime you deal with every basic human emotion and also have enough elements to combine action with melodrama. The player's imagination is fired as they plan to rob the train. Because of the gamble they take in the early stage of the game there is a build-up of tension, which is immediately released once the train is robbed.
Release of tension is therapeutic and useful in our society, because most jobs are boring and repetitive. Playing games has been suggested as a viable addition to traditional educational curriculum. There are a number of ways in which board games can be classified,  and considerable overlap may exist, so that a game belong in several categories. Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games.
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You can help by adding to it. September Board games serve diverse interests. Left : Konane for studious competition. Right : Konane for lighthearted fun. Abstract strategy games — e. Hoity Toity Chess variants — traditional variants e. Lines of Action , Hexade, or Entropy Connection games — e. TwixT , Hex , or Havannah Cooperative games — e.vofbokontheeten.ga
Yut , Ludo , or Aggravation Deduction games — e. Mastermind or Black Box Dexterity games — e. Tumblin' Dice or Pitch Car Economic simulation games — e. Shadows Over Camelot German-style board games or Eurogames — e. Pictionary or Battleship Hidden-movement games — e.
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Mafia or The Resistance Historical simulation games — e. Through the Ages or Railways of the World Large multiplayer games — e. The Ungame Mancala games — e. Risk , Monopoly , or Four-player chess Musical games — e. Spontuneous Negotiation games — e. Diplomacy Paper-and-pencil games — e.
Tic-tac-toe or Dots and Boxes Physical skill games — e. Camp Granada Position games no captures; win by leaving the opponent unable to move — e. Monopoly or Life Running-fight games — e.
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There are differing strategies for both offensive and defensive play, and the wise chess player will have experience with both. Corporate strategy is much the same: protecting something of value the company and engaging in war with the opponent who wishes to win. The business person who can successfully navigate offensive and defensive tactics will be an asset to a company in the game of business.
Perhaps one of the most important principles one can take from the game of chess is to know the aim of the game. A beginning chess player who is struggling with the fundamentals of the game will be easily defeated by the more experienced, practiced player.
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Understanding the main goal of the game is imperative for any player who wishes to be competitive. Decimate and dominate, as quickly as possible. It is equally important to understand the aim of the business to remain competitive. To provide outstanding customer service?
Everything else that is done must be approached from the perspective of reaching that goal. The company that is competitive must understand that their competitors are out to win.